Andrew Van Horn, Ph.D.

Managing Director

Sierra Madre, CA 91024
t: 925.254.3358

Andy Van Horn, Principal and Managing Director, provides expertise and insight into energy and environmental markets, regulations, technologies and policies. For over forty years he has advised industry, government agencies and research institutes by providing rigorous analysis, management counsel, expert testimony and litigation support. Clients include developers of new technologies and participants in electricity, natural gas, coal and emissions markets.

Andy pioneered the development and application of complex integrated assessment models for the U.S.E.P.A. (EPA) and The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and delivered expert testimony regarding electricity and natural gas assets, markets, contracts, regulations and rates in state and federal proceedings. He helped develop and implement the U.S. cap-and-trade market for SO2 and set the price for the first SO2 allowance trade in 1992. He has examined the effects of California’s AB 32 rules on California Carbon Allowance (CCA) and western electricity markets.

In consulting engagements, he has:

  • Advised developers of advanced technologies,
  • Analyzed California Air Resources Board rules for trading California Carbon Allowances, including holding limits and limited exemptions, recommended changes to the cap-and-trade rules to increase liquidity and avoid price spikes, and simulated behaviors of auction participants and western electricity markets in a collaborative study of California’s cap-and-trade program,
  • Served as the Independent Evaluator (IE) and as a member of VHC’s IE teams (2007-2014) to assess RFO and bilateral contract offers and negotiations with San Diego Gas & Electric Company and Southern California Edison in procuring renewable, combined heat and power, demand-side, peaking, intermediate and baseload generation resources and natural gas supplies,
  • Examined electricity, natural gas, coal, technology and emissions markets for electric and gas utilities, natural gas pipelines, project developers, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Energy, the Utility Air Regulatory Group and the U.S. General Accounting Office,
  • Delivered talks and seminars to industry groups, e.g., the Environmental Markets Association’s national webinar on California’s AB 32 and Law Seminars International courses. Was one of three U.S. experts invited to address CDM Tech 2007, an international conference on the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and GHG reduction projects held in Cartagena, Colombia,
  • Analyzed cap-and-trade market designs and critiqued studies as part of California’s efforts to develop GHG regulations. Identified critical shortcomings in the CPUC’s adopted load-based market design in 2006-2007, leading the CPUC to change its market design recommendation in 2008,
  • Co-delivered a 3-day seminar to EPA’s Office of Research and Development on R&D evaluation and the integrated assessment of technologies,
  • Co-chaired sessions on International Climate, U.S. Carbon Policy and Regional & State GHG Initiatives at the national Electric Utilities Environmental Conference, each year 2006-2013,
  • Prepared a 20 year Electrical Master Plan and strategy for the Port of Long Beach, one of the world’s busiest ports,
  • Led EPRI’s comprehensive economic and technical study of U.S. energy technologies and regulations from 2000 to 2050, examining effects of alternative environmental policies, including carbon taxes. Study results were presented to EPA’s Assistant Administrator and White House staff,
  • Testified about electricity and natural gas market operations, tariffs, contract terms and damages, economic and regulatory issues for Southern California Edison, Pacific Gas & Electric Company, CNG Transmission and independent power producers,
  • Enabled the City of Huntington Beach to increase the assessed property tax value of the Huntington Beach Power Plant before the California State Board of Equalization,
  • Served as expert advisor to clients concerning wind, geothermal, natural gas, electricity and emission allowance contracts,
  • Developed and applied the EPA’s national Utility Simulation Model (USM), EPRI’s first integrated resource planning model (TELPLAN), FINSIM, a pro-forma financial model, NEMS 2050, an extension of EIA’s National Energy Modeling System to year 2050, the Emissions Reduction Analysis Model (ERAM), the California GHG Allowance Strategy Calculator and directed studies using state-of-the-art capacity expansion, production simulation and network power system models,
  • Prepared an Integrated Technology Assessment and economic analysis of alternative New Source Performance Standards for EPA and DOE. The results were taken to President Carter,
  • Analyzed proposed 1977 & 1990 U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments, including NSPS and “cap-and-trade” and New Source Review. Analyzed cost and performance for pollution controls and technology R&D and projected changes in coal and natural gas markets and technology choices,
  • Provided the price for the first public SO2 emissions allowance trade in 1992,
  • Forecasted allowance prices for the SO2 cap-and-trade market and advised TVA, Southern Company and others.

In addition, Dr. Van Horn has:

  • Assisted GreenFire Energy as a member of its Advisory Board since 2014 and as Director of Applied Research since 2020,
  • Delivered briefings and presentations on: California’s AB 32, Carbon Emissions and Environmental Market Design, Why National Cap-and-Trade Legislation Failed and What to Do About It, COP-15 in Copenhagen, Auctions vs. Allocation of GHG Allowances, Integrated Technology Assessment, Power Procurement, Clean Air Response: Strategic Issues & Markets, SO2 Compliance Planning, the Behavior of Markets for Emission Allowances, Fuels and Technologies, R&D Evaluation, and Electricity Grid Ancillary Services Markets for EPRI, EPA, Law Seminars International and others,
  • Evaluated merchant power and co-generation plants for Duke Energy and Sithe Energies,
  • Prepared expert testimony on the effects of natural gas tariffs and rate designs, including rolled-in vs. incremental rates, the economic and environmental benefits/costs of several interstate pipelines, and the reasonableness of natural gas contracts,
  • Appeared before the FERC regarding Northeast gas demand and the economic viability of proposed natural gas pipelines,
  • Advised clients on integrated resource planning, the selection of production cost, planning and financial models, emission allowance prices and auctions,
  • Helped PG&E divest fossil-fired and geothermal power plants by preparing the first Proponent’s Environmental Assessments under CEQA for PG&E’s power plant sales,
  • Testified before the FERC, the California Public Utilities Commission, the California Energy Commission, the Colorado PUC, in arbitration and in Superior and U.S. Bankruptcy Courts.

Prior to founding Van Horn Consulting in 1987, Andy was Director and Principal of Putnam, Hayes & Bartlett, a management consulting firm. Previously, he was Director of Energy Systems Planning at TERA Corporation, a consulting firm and wind farm developer during the 1980s, and Director of the Energy and Environmental Research Division at Teknekron Research, Inc., where he managed a group of 20 professionals. He held post-doctoral fellowships at Harvard University (Dept. of Physics and the JFK Energy and Environmental Policy Center) and at the Rutherford Laboratory in the U.K, where he organized an international summer school on Energy at Oxford University and edited the book, “Aspects of Energy Conversion.”

Andy earned a Ph.D. in Physics from the University of California, Berkeley and a B.S. in Physics from Harvey Mudd College in Claremont, California.

For further information, publications and presentations visit: